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This AAP clinical report reviews some of the short-term effects of maternal substance use during pregnancy and long-term implications of fetal exposure inclduing medical, psychiatric, and behavioral symptoms of children and adolescents in families affected by substance use.It provides suggestions for pediatricians, including screening families, mandated reporting requirements, and directing families to services.
At least one trauma is reported by two-thirds of American children and adolescents (hereafter referred to as “children”); 33% of children experience multiple traumas before reaching adulthood. Although most children are resilient, trauma exposure is associated with increased risk for medical and mental health problems including Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and attempted and completed suicide. Core TF-CBT principles are 1) phase- and components-based treatment; 2) component order and proportionality of phases; 3) the use of gradual exposure in TF-CBT and 4) the importance of integrally including parents or other primary caregivers into TF-CBT treatment.