NYC study examining impact of zero-tolerance student discipline policy, particularly the practice of suspension. The study also found that schools can be safe places for students even if the surrounding neighborhood is relatively unsafe. The extensive study by the Center for Court Innovation of New York City school students found that, once disciplined in school, students were more likely to face further discipline or justice-system involvement if they were male Black, Hispanic, disabled, or poor, and that student conduct alone may not impact the decision to impose school discipline, as school staff decision-makers may be swayed by implicit biases pertaining to students' demographic traits or stereotypes tied to those traits. Qualitative data was also obtained from interviews and focus groups to gather impressions of school climate and safety and the impacts of restorative justice practices and positive practices designed to improve school climate and safety. These practices are outlined.